A new paper in the latest issue of Science describes how the bacterial-sensing proteins, NOD1/2, are recruited to the membranes of our gut cells for them to function to initiate a proper immune response. This involves the addition of a lipid, palmitoyl, to NOD1/2 by the palmitoyl-transferase ZDHHC5. Importantly variants of NOD2 that are associated with Crohn’s disease are unable to be palmitoylated.  This work involved an international collaboration which included the Klip, Fairn, and Muise labs from the Biochemistry Department.